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Corporate Financial Accounting – Basic Accounting Principles

Waheed Babatunde Written by Waheed Babatunde · 1 min read >

The generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are known as basic accounting principles. GAAP is a set of financial rules and economic guidelines that help you build precise statements about your working costs, income, and results. These rules and guidelines are known as “basic accounting principles”

Accounting principles are used to make components of financial statements. The financial statements’ constituent parts provide insight into a company’s financial standing. This includes a Shareholders’ Equity Statement, an Income Statement, a Cash Flow Statement, and a Balance Sheet. Each element has a function and aids in providing a concise understanding of the company’s issues.

A shareholders’ equity statement, a part of the financial statement, details the quantity and the sources of changes in equity shareholders’ investments over time in the company. It lists the adjustments to capital and reserves attributed to the company’s equity holders over the accounting period. As a result, the closing balance is determined by adjusting for all changes against the opening balance.

The Income Statement includes revenue (which includes all cash inflows from the manufacturing of goods and the provision of services), expenses (which include all cash outflows from the manufacturing of goods and the provision of services), as well as all gains and losses that are not attributable to the regular course of business. It also includes all cash inflows and outflows from the business. A “profit” results when revenues are greater than expenses; the reverse is the case for a “loss position”.

A cash flow statement is primarily created as a supplement to the income statement and statement of financial position. The cash flow statement is divided into three segments: operating, financing, and investing. Each segment provides information about cash position changes resulting from actual cash inflow and outflow. Hence, the cash flow statement shows the actual cash balance as of the end of the year.

The balance sheet details the company’s financial position at a specific time, usually at the year-end. It displays the assets that the company owns, on the one hand, the funding sources that it utilized to acquire those assets in the form of capital contributions, and the liabilities that the company incurred, on the other hand. The balance sheet demonstrates how funds have been allocated to the company’s operations and how the funds are utilized. There are three components to a balance sheet:

1. Assets (resources controlled by the business).

2. Liabilities (amount owed to lenders and other creditors).

3. Owner’s equity (this is known as the owners’ contribution to the business)

The basic accounting equation is true for each transaction on the balance sheet:

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity.

The balance sheet of a business is “balanced” by this fundamental accounting equation, which demonstrates that the total assets of a business equal the sum of its liabilities and shareholders’ equity. This equation, often known as the balance sheet equation, demonstrates how a company’s assets are acquired by either the obligations it owes or the equity its owners contribute.

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