Elizabeth Otike Written by Elizabeth Otike · 1 min read >

We can all agree that an argument is draining, especially with someone who doesn’t listen or doesn’t want to take to corrections. Arguments have most times a negative impact on all parties involved as most people resort to all sorts of fabrications to make a point.  

But arguments when used constructively are not all bad. In fact, when making business decisions, arguments are used to convince others to understand a point of view.

Below we would understand briefly what Arguments in Communication are, the objectives, strategies, and other important considerations in forming an argument.


In Persuasive communication arguments are necessary. It is used to represent one’s position with logical points, and to convince others with a contrary point of view that your position is superior or more appropriate.


1.  It helps garner the respect of others. Likewise, the presenter would be seen as a trustworthy speaker and that the arguments are morally and ethically correct.

2.  Contributes to your credibility by building sound arguments and using strategic arguments with skill and planning.

3.  It helps to form opinions or question those we already have. Identically, it would also help to reason our way through conflicts and contradictions.

4.  It helps to convince the listeners or readers and subsequently, moves them to act upon or understand a conviction


There are different theories of the structure of arguments in communication. Below are two:

Classical theory 

This theory is a standard pattern that provides us with the following elements:

1.  Exordium – This helps prepare the listener for your argument. In other words, It is your introduction or the hook.

2.  Narration – It is to provide relevant information or context of your argument to the audience. However, It should be limited by facts and figures.

3.  Division – This helps outline the key points in your arguments. Additionally, grouping similar or complimenting points together helps push the narrative to the audience better.

4.  Proposition – It is the introduction of your primary claim in the speech.

5.  Confirmation – Provides the evidence to authenticate and support your argument.

6.  Refutation – This introduces the audience to potential objections of the argument and then counters and refutes them.

7.  Digression – Departing from the main subject to present other matters. It is important to make sure that these matters are relevant to your argument.

8.  Peroration or Epilogue – The concluding part of the argument.

In English and speech courses, most people follow this pattern. It guides you through preparing your document and can serve as a checklist to make sure that you are ready.

Rhetorical Theory: 

Classical theory has its advantages, but it can also be complex when used in everyday scenarios. Stephen Toulmin’s rhetorical strategy is more familiar and focuses on three main elements:

1.  Claim – Your statement of belief or truth.

2.  Data – Your supporting reasons for the request.

3.  Warrant – You create the connection between the claim and the supporting rights.

Above all, this is easier to follow as it explicitly states the claim, and then establishes a clear connection, between the said claim and the data. It will enable the audience to grasp your reasoning.

To be continued in my next blog post.

#MMBA3 #Lillybeth’scorner


OMB in General
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