Man has the ability to think about things that he cannot perceive with his senses, such as God or his own health, and he also has the ability to act with the aim of accomplishing goals that he cannot see with his senses in order to achieve those goals. He is capable of comprehending non-material realities such as “God,” “truth,” “justice,” and “fairies,” as well as abstract, universal notions such as “man” and “tree,” and he can even understand things that are adverse to him (nothingness). There is more to what we mean when we talk about intelligence than just individual instances of perceptual clarity. We also have the capacity to reason, which enables us to compare and contrast a wide range of ideas, draw inferences from those ideas, put together a number of different bits of information, and proceed in a manner that is consistent from premise to conclusion. The main point that I want to make here is that there are many other motivations for us to act, and not all of them are based on our feelings, or even the majority of them. These motives arise from an awareness of either opportunities leading to our fulfillment or risks that could hinder us from obtaining that fulfillment. Both of these types of awareness are sources of inspiration. A man does not have any say over the feelings that he experiences, but he does have some say over the actions that he takes.
On the other hand, the will can relate to abstract realities like a general class (for example, a man can despise all thieves), and when it loves or desires something specific, it does so in a way that indicates a general quality. When a man despises all thieves, his will is related to a general class. For instance, a man may have a strong aversion to stealing in general. We can observe that humans and other higher animals share more similarities than differences when we look at things like genes, fundamental physiological systems, sensory cognition, and even emotions. Managers need to have a grasp of the unique traits that comprise human intelligence in order for them to be able to effectively manage people and their work environments. When a guy “understands the rationale” behind doing something, he is more likely to actually carry it out. It is likely that he is acting in this manner in order to keep from being fired, in order to provide financially for his family, or even in order to get a more flashy car. To convince a guy to do something, you must first explain to him why he should carry out the action. These reasons do not necessarily need to be “selfish” motives; however, they should demonstrate to him why he ought to carry out the action.
When managers make an effort to put these beliefs into reality, they are typically dissatisfied with the results of their efforts. Animals can be trained effectively with both sticks and carrots, but humans are much harder to control and predict because they are smarter.